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Blockchain and the Sustainable Development Goals – Hacker Noon

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By: Laura Marissa Cullell
Advertising & Operations Officer

Can know-how progress human rights? Present humanitarian help? Assist fight Local weather Change? Tackle problems with id, trafficking, and present entry to meals?

The reply to those questions is sure. And Blockchain is a incredible area to discover these points proper now.

In the final article of our collection on Distinctive and Fascinating Use Instances for Blockchain, I discover a few of the purposes of blockchain to realize the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Half I explored simply a few of the use instances of this revolutionary tech in the oil and fuel business. Half II noticed the prospects for blockchain in the Music Business. Half III checked out the prospects of blockchain in healthcare.

For the previous couple of months, I’ve been engaged on my thesis on Blockchain, Human Rights and Worldwide Regulation for the U.N. Mandated College for Peace. I’ve had the probability to study a plethora of progressive tasks, pilots, and concepts that human rights activists are presently engaged on to make the world a greater place. Is it profitable? Not all the time. However it does assist make a tangible distinction.

Listed here are a few of the most fascinating purposes of Blockchain for Social influence, extra particularly how this progressive know-how addresses a few of the Sustainable Development Goals.

Blockchain Know-how and the UN: The Sustainable Development Goals

The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

For these which are unfamiliar, in 2015, all 193 members of the United Nations unanimously handed a decision implementing a 15-year plan of attaining 17 Sustainable Development, international objectives by 2030 (SDGs). Every of those objectives has targets to realize, totalling 169 totally different targets. The SDGs cowl a broad vary of social and financial improvement points together with poverty, starvation, well being, schooling, gender equality, clear water, sanitation, power, surroundings, and social justice.

SDG No. 2: Eradication of Starvation
World Meals Programme — Constructing Blocks

UN Assist packages have been wrought with numerous instances of fraud, pink tape, hefty administrative charges and mismanagement of funds. As a way to present the most quantity of assist to those that want it the most, the World Meals Programme (WFP) carried out a pilot undertaking in 2017 referred to as Constructing Blocks. It was an early experiment that enabled the switch of WFP Meals and money on a public Ethereum blockchain by means of a smartphone app to weak households in Pakistan, addressing SDG Aim №1 and 2- poverty and starvation.

Inside months, the WFP expanded the pilot to a Syrian refugee camp in Azraq, Jordan to efficiently facilitate money transfers for over 10,000 Syrian refugees on its blockchain funds platform. Based on CCN, the implementation of blockchain know-how additionally enabled Syrian refugees to purchase meals from native retailers utilizing a biometric scan of their eye the place every transaction was recorded on a blockchain, rendering the use of money, financial institution playing cards, and paper vouchers out of date. On this case, the refugees didn’t have to share any delicate knowledge with banks or cellular operators, benefiting from larger safety and privateness via an immutable, safe blockchain.

Now, the World Meals Programme is presently increasing its Ethereum-based blockchain after saving hundreds of thousands of dollars in financial institution transfers by using decentralised blockchain know-how. Presently, the WFP feeds over 100 million individuals throughout 80 nations.

SDG No. 5: Gender Equality and Id
UN Ladies: Blockchain Simulation Lab

UN Ladies is the solely UN organ that was based in the 21st Century. This organ of the UN is devoted to gender fairness and the empowerment of girls and was established to speed up progress of assembly their wants worldwide. Their focus is on growing ladies’s management and participation, ending violence towards ladies, partaking ladies in all points of peace and safety processes,and making gender equality central to nationwide improvement planning and budgeting.

From January 29 — February 1, 2018, UN Ladies hosted a Four-day blockchain simulation lab with a view to create launching factors of attaining objectives like gender equality, and ending starvation and poverty. Profitable packages from this lab would turn into a part of bigger UN initiatives together with the UN Ladies’s International Flagship Programmes for Catastrophe Danger Discount.

The Blockchain simulation lab addressed humanitarian situations round id. For stateless refugees, for instance, id isn’t restricted to documentation. In accordance with Jordan Daniell, Blockchain might present a platform the place storing identification paperwork as a viable approach of proving their id, in a humanitarian state of affairs. Daniell believes that authorities might additionally id ladies or women who’ve been trafficked or who’ve gone lacking.

The simulation lab is a create first step merging the pursuit of Gender equality and addressing different intersecting sustainable improvement objectives.

The winners of this hackathon was Olivier Mukuta and his staff. As social innovators from the Congo, and with expertise in refugee camps on Malawi, they developed VIPI Money — an app that makes use of blockchain to allow safe cash transfers amongst ladies entrepreneurs. This provides them absolute management over their very own cash, unbiased of any male members of their household.

Different winners of this hackthon included Digital Seize Bag — a safe place on blockchain constructed with Syncano the place refugees can acquire id knowledge which could be verified by trusted individuals their journey, and Diwala — a decentralized platform that verifies individuals’s expertise and supplies a digital verified CV.

SDG No. 13: Local weather Motion
Worldwide Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN): The Inexperienced Listing

The Worldwide Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is a membership Union uniquely composed of each authorities and civil society organisations. It offers public, personal, and non-governmental organisations with the information and instruments that allow human progress, financial improvement, and nature conservation to happen collectively.

The IUCN is trying to make the most of blockchain to manage its Inexperienced Record of International Conservation areas, which inspires and helps the creation of latest and protected conservation websites round the world. Blockchain gives a discount of financial institution charges, extra transparency about Inexperienced Record funding, and progress in the direction of assembly its objectives.

James Hardcastle, the IUCN’s programme believes that many of those protected areas don’t have an abundance of cash at their disposal so decreasing monetary friction and transaction prices diverts extra money into preserving ecosystems. This manner, the IUCN can assure that donor funds go straight to the website they need to assist.

Blockchain can also be stated to attainable enhance the system of carbon asset transactions. UN Local weather Change (UNFCC) believes that recording carbon belongings on a public blockchain might assure transparency and be sure that transactions are legitimate and settled mechanically.

SDG No. 16: Peace, Justice and Robust Establishments
ID2020 and Digital Identities

Article 6 of the Common Declaration on Human Rights stipulates that “Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.” The Sustainable Development Goals (2015–2030) embrace goal 16.9 which goals to “provide legal identity to all, including birth registration, by 2030.” ID2020 believes this should embrace the >20M refugees worldwide and seeks to offer.

ID2020 is an alliance of governments, NGOs, and the personal sector, together with the UN Excessive Commissioner for Human Rights. All of those entities search to make use of blockchain know-how to offer refugees a digital id. They’ve at present teamed up with Accenture and are taking a look at rolling out an inter-operable, user-owned and managed digital id to its a whole lot of hundreds of employees. They hope that this initiative will evolve to a regular background examine which might be distributed to potential shoppers utilizing a biometrics system that may handle knowledge on fingerprints and irises.

Enhancements on failed Governance Fashions

One in every of the largest benefit of utilizing blockchain know-how lies in its’ governance mechanisms. Blockchains allow belief which might, in flip, assist mitigate corruption. Present worldwide and home governance fashions are wrought with paperwork, purple tape, and inefficiencies, which is the good storm for corruption.

The UNDP proposed a mannequin of Good Governance which supplies a cursory framework for a way governments ought to function:

  1. Participation — all residents have the proper to an equal voice in choice making
  2. Rule of Regulation — truthful an neutral authorized frameworks particularly relating to human rights.
  3. Transparency — based mostly on free movement of data, the place processes, establishments and info is all the time readily accessible.
  4. Responsiveness — Establishments and authorities businesses serve all stakeholders.
  5. Consensus Orientation — acknowledging differing pursuits and makes an attempt to succeed in a broad consensus on what’s in the greatest pursuits of the group and (the place potential), on insurance policies and procedures
  6. Fairness — All residents no matter gender, have alternatives to take care of their well-being
  7. Effectiveness and Effectivity — Permits each processes and establishments produce outcomes that meet wants whereas making the greatest use of assets
  8. Accountability — the place choice makers in authorities, the personal sector, and civil society organizations are accountable to the public in addition to to institutional stakeholders.

Blockchain strengthens belief, and promotes info sharing between establishments and the public. It could possibly have an effect on democratic voting fashions and promote the rules of excellent governance.A blockchain operates on the rules of consensus, accountability and transparency between all events.

Based on Guillaume Chapron, “Local communities could be empowered to manage their natural resources through ad hoc voting. For example, fish might be traded on a platform only if harvest quotas were approved by a community-based democratic process.”

By digitizing governance fashions and facilitating the creation of digital societies, resembling e-Estonia, attaining entry to only and peaceable establishments is certainly attainable.

Challenges with the Know-how

Blockchain continues to be in its exploration and infancy part and will not be appropriate for each UN/Worldwide humanitarian Company. For Toni Caradonna, Chief Innovation Supervisor at the Porini Basis, ‘Blockchain for Good’ gives nice potential, however can’t be seen in isolation as a silver bullet for all the world’s urgent points.

“Blockchain can give transparency, efficiency gains and independence from banks, but we still need cooperation from legislators. Blockchain alone cannot solve the problem of people who feel free to pollute thinking that someone else will come along and clear up the mess.”

State-level and worldwide coverage networks have to adapt and permit for improvements whereas offering satisfactory laws that gives a base-level steerage on what can and can’t be completed with Blockchain.

It’s additionally arduous to disregard the technical challenges. Bitcoin, for instance, is sluggish. Ethereum is an enchancment however extra are required earlier than it may be universally utilized. It’s additionally necessary to notice that to err is human, and if somebody have been to lose their cryptographic key, or entry to a blockchain, there’s not option to retrieve it once more.

With the ongoing blurring strains between the actual and digital world, there have been growing considerations of knowledge possession and entry to providers. With all of those improvements, there must be sufficient protections in place to guard the identities of refugees or stateless people.

There’s additionally the situation of the digital divide. This time period has sometimes referred to the hole between those that have entry to sure applied sciences and these that don’t. Many creating nations wouldn’t have the satisfactory infrastructure or means to offer with high-speed web or digital accessibility. All humanitarian efforts with blockchain are moot if sustainable, cost-effective, long-term options can’t be adopted.

Blockchain and the development of Human Rights

Kobina Hughes believes that blockchain presents a chance for the Web improvement group to say a level of recognition in the human rights realm.

It solely is sensible that know-how is being utilised to advertise gender equality and tackle present social considerations in methods which are solely capable of be explored now as a consequence of improvements in know-how.

The truth that Blockchain is presently being adopted by governments and worldwide organs is an excellent first step at using know-how for selling human rights for all.

Have you learnt of some other fascinating developments with Blockchain and the Sustainable Development Goals? Tell us in the feedback under!

Laura Marissa Cullell is the Advertising & Operations Officer at BlockX Labs. She is a MA Graduate of the UN College of Peace in Worldwide Regulation and Human Rights. She loves puns, glitter, and studying an obscene quantity of books.

You’ll be able to attain her at: [email protected]